Islamic Revivalism in the 21st Century: Myth or Realityzulkiflihasan
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: ISLAM RAHMATAN LIL ‘ALAMIN
12th INTERNATIONAL YOUTH GATHERING (IYG), 1st February 2015/ Sunday
Islamic Revivalism in the 21st Century: Myth or Reality
Zulkifli Hasan, PhD (Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia (ABIM))
1. Rahmatan lil ‘Alamin, Ummatism and Islah
2. Current State of Muslims Ummah
3. The Causes of Decline
4. The Need for Reform
Rahmatan Lil ‘Alamin
TAWHID: The essence of Islam is al Tawhid. Muslim is definable by his adherence to Al Tawhid.
Al Tawhid: Acknowledging God as sole Creator of the universe and Equalizing all men as creatures of God.
MERCY/COMPASSION/ BENEVOLENCE: “My mercy embraces everything” (7:156)
To all the world, both believers and disbelievers.
The social order of Islam is universal, enveloping the whole of mankind.
Islamic social order holds Islam relevant to every era of human activity.
The qualities of humanness are possessed by all mankind by nature.
The ideal of the universal community is expressed in the word ‘Ummah’.
“Thus have We made of you an Ummah, Justly balanced, that you might be witnesses over the nations.“ (2: 143)
“You are the best ummah brought forth unto mankind, enjoining good works, prohibiting evil and putting your faith in Allah” (3: 110).
“Let there be of you an ummah, which calls men to good works and prohibits evil. Such are the felicitous” (3: 104)
“This is your ummah-one, united and integral and I am your Lord, Serve Me” (21: 92)
A universal society whose membership includes the widest possible variety of ethnicities or communities (sya’b or qawm) but whose commitment to Islam binds them to a specific social order (al Faruqi).
Muslim Ummah: a mission which upholds a vision for mankind.
“We have made you a mid-most (just) community” (2: 143)
“O believers! Be establishers of Justice, Witness for God” (4: 135)
“Indeed We have sent forth Our Messengers with clear messages, and We sent down them the Book and the Balance, so that men may establish Justice” (57: 25).
Muslims have religious duties to undertake individually and collectively active struggle to establish justice.
Justice is the criterion (al-mizan) by which God will evaluate mankind;
Injustice triggers the decline of civilization (Ibnu Khaldun).
Islamic Revivalism: Reform, Resurgence, Renewal and Awakening
Tajdid (Renewal), Islah (Reform), Sahwah/Nahdah (Awakening), and Ihya (Revival)
Islam had to have its own reformation, enlightenment and liberal consciousness.
It is a process of modernization of the Muslim world with an Islamic orientation to design the scheme of modernization by conforming to Islamic norms.
The needed reform of Muslim thinking and, it will be a reform from within, not one imposed from outside.
Characteristics of the 21st Century
Shortens geographic distances
Eased human travel through faster means of communication
Vast and free dissemination of information
Changes of lifestyle
The richest 1% owned 48% of global wealth, leaving just 52% to be shared between the other 99% of adults on the planet.
In 2010, the richest 80 people in the world had a net wealth of $1.3tn. By 2014, $1.9tn; an increase of $600bn in just 4 years.
Speculation represented about 99.2% of the activities of our equity market system, with capital formation accounting for 0.8%.
World Development Indicators
More than 76% of the global R&D expenditures is spent by developed countries, 31.7% (USA), 23.2% (EU), and 10.9% (Japan).
The OIC countries account for only 2.1% of the world total Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD), or 8.8% of the total GERD of developing countries.
Israel (4.39%), Finland (3.78%) and Korea (3.74%) are the top countries in terms of allocating resources for R&D. Top countries in OIC are Tunisia (1.1%), Malaysia (1.07%) and Turkey (0.84%). The Muslim world spend only 0.5% on R&D while the non Muslim world spend 5% on R&D.
The Muslim world spends less than 4% of their GDP on education.
World Governance Indicators
Indicators. 1) voice and accountability 2) political instability and absence of violence; 3) government effectiveness: 4) regulatory quality; 5) rule of law; and 6) control of corruption.
While developed countries outperform developing countries in all categories, other developing countries also do comparably better than OIC countries.
In none of the categories, OIC countries as a group attain a positive score.
Voice and accountability and political stability categories are the weakest categories for OIC countries.
Freedom House’s annual survey of political rights and civil liberties
4 Muslim countries are free: open political competition, a climate of respect for civil liberties, significant independent civic life, and independent media.
14 are partly free: limited respect for political rights and civil liberties.
9 are not free: basic political rights are absent, and basic civil liberties are widely and systematically denied.
The Index of Election World: 13 Countries have democracy and 44 do not. Of these 44 countries: pseudo democracy, absolute monarchy, and dictatorship.
World University Ranking
The Times Higher Education World University Ranking
Only 9 are in Muslim world.
The Top 100 Universities in the World–No Muslim University Ranked
QS World Ranking
Only 20 are in Muslim world.
No Muslim University Ranked at the top 100 universities
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)
Among the 65 countries surveyed in the study, 5 of the 10 worst performers on the overall reading scale are the OIC member countries.
Turkey as the best performing OIC country occupies only the 44th position.
More than 30% of Malian youths aged 15–19 yrs who completed 6 years of schooling could not read a simple sentence.
In Pakistan, tests of grade 3 children found that only half could answer very basic multiplication questions
Corruption Perceptions Index
Transparency International: 177 countries.
Ranges from 10 (Least Corrupt) and O (Most Corrupt).
8 Muslim majority countries were among the 10 most corrupt nations.
Only 6 Muslim countries are above the borderline.
Israel scored a 61 on the index and ranked 36th least corrupt.
The Global Competitiveness Index
The index covers 114 indicators under 12 pillars namely “institutions, infrastructure, macroeconomic environment, health and primary education, higher education and training, goods market efficiency, labour market efficiency, financial market development, technological readiness, market size, business sophistication and innovation”
Average GCI score of 3.90 in 2013, as compared to the rest of the world 4.2 and developed countries 5.0.
Only Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia and Brunei scores above 5.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
The total patent applications in OIC countries reached almost 60,000; account for only 0.6% of total applications filled in the world.
Countries with higher number of patent applications attained better positions in global competitiveness rankings.
USA, Japan, China, and Republic of Korea accounted for almost 70% (7 million patent applications)
Logistics Performance Index (LPI)
45% of the OIC member countries had poor logistics performance with score below 2.47.
Malaysia (3.59) and Somalia (1.77) were the two OIC member countries with the highest and lowest logistics performance index values.
In contrast, 85% of the developed countries are considered to be logistics friendly with scores above 3.34.
Transportation infrastructure in the OIC countries is incompetent and the transportation system as a whole offers poor connectivity.
OIC Economic Outlook
The total GDP of the group of the OIC countries (1.5 billion population and 22% of the world population) is $9.8 trillion representing only 11% share in the world total GDP.
The number of unemployed around the world is estimated to have reached 201.8 million in 2013. Youth unemployment in OIC countries estimated at 15.6%.
3 out of every 4 US dollars of intra-OIC exports come from only ten countries. 4/5 of OIC exports and imports come from only ten countries representing only 9% of global exports.
The average OIC per capita income was US$3,600 while the average of the rest of the developing world was about US$5,600.
The OIC GDP of US$3.2 while the US, US$13.9 trillion. The entire Islamic world’s GDP is only 23% of that of the United States.
An Economic Islamicity Index
Measuring 208 countries’ adherence to Islamic Economic principles using as proxies 113 measurable variables.
1) Economic opportunity and economic freedom; 2) Justice in property rights and the sanctity of contracts ; 3) Better treatment of workers 4) Higher education expenditures 5) Poverty eradication 6) Distribution of wealth and income 7) Better social infrastructure 8) Higher savings and investment 9) Higher moral standard, honesty and trust 10) Financial System: risk sharing and the abolition of interest 12) Higher trade/GDP, higher foreign aid/GDP and higher degree of environmental preservation.
Non- Islamic, rich and developed, countries are performing well under principles embraced by Islam.
The highest ranked Islamic country is Malaysia (33), followed in order by Kuwait (42), Kazakhstan (54), Brunei (55), Bahrain (61) and (64).
ICT Use in OIC Countries
World Bank WDI:
With respect to mobile cellular subscriptions and internet use, OIC countries are performing fairly well. Some OIC countries show even better performance than developed countries.
More than 85% of people in Qatar, Bahrain and UAE have internet access.
Pakistan tops the list of most porn-searching countries and leads the way in porn searches for animals like pigs, donkeys, dogs, cats and snakes.
Six of the top eight porn-searching countries were Muslim states. The country at number two in the list was Egypt, while Iran, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Turkey came in at numbers four, five, seven and eight, respectively.
Note: The sale of pornographic material has been banned in nearly every Arab country except Lebanon and Turkey.
The Need for Genuine, Balanced and Integrated Reforms
Moral and Spiritual Reforms: Moral and spiritual upbringing
Intellectual and Ideological Reforms: Re-understanding of the original vision and Reaffirmation of the ummah’s mission
Educational Reform: Promotion of education and character building
Political Reform: freedom of expression, an honest judiciary, equality, and accountability
Socio-economic Reform: Justice and development, mobilization of material, economic and technological resources and alleviation of poverty
Institutional Reform: Family, religious institution, civil society and etc.
Framework for Reform
“The strength of the sovereign (al-mulk) does not become consumed except by implementation of the Shari’ah;
The Shari’ah cannot be implemented except by a sovereign (al-mulk);
The sovereign cannot gain strength except through the people (al-rijal);
The people cannot be sustained except by wealth (al-mal);
Wealth cannot be acquired except through development (al-‘imarah);
Development cannot be attained except through justice (al- ‘adl); Justice is the criterion (al-mizan) by which God will evaluate mankind; and
The sovereign is charged with the responsibility of actualising justice”
Operational Framework for Reform
Spirituality: Spiritual consciousness and development.
Reformism: the reform of the Muslim society through the improvement of the performance of the social institutions such as the family, religious and educational institutions, etc.
Activism: social and political awakening, seeking transformation of the existing Muslim societies into truly Islamic societies (khairu ummah).
Intellectualism: Intellectual movement, promotion of Islamic thought and Islamic outlook of life through advancement of knowledge in all modern fields of physical and social sciences.
Challenge for the Future
Imbalanced reform : The present-day reform movements’ focus on politics, means and tools are not but a mere attempt at escaping from confronting the reality.
Pseudo reform: Violence, terrorism, mystical, absence of spirituality
Advancement of knowledge and technology: Science will shape our daily lives and lifestyle. Eg. Computer, Artificial Intelligence, Medicine, Nanotechnology, Energy, Space travel, wealth and humanity.
The Muslim world could not regain its position as the leading civilization if it had crumbling moral and scientific bases.
The Key to Future- Wisdom (Hikmah)
“Call towards the way of Lord with wisdom, friendly admonition and convincing argument” (16:125)
A total insight and having sound judgment concerning a matter or situation through understanding cause and effect phenomena
Most precious commodity in modern society. Knowledge, rationality and flexibility. New thinking based on current realities
Immanuel Kant: “Science is organized knowledge and wisdom is organized life”.
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